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Культурно обусловленные формы общения и поведения


Автор(ы): Переверзева Ольга Владимировна, доцент

I. READING
1. Read the text and the tips for travelers, and complete the sentences.
WHEN IN ROME, DO AS THE ROMANS DO
How much do you know about different cultures around the world? What would be wise to bear in mind while you are traveling around this or that country? Body gestures have different meanings depending on the country in which they are expressed.
Austria
  1. While dining, keep your hands on the table. It is rude to put your hands on your lap during dining.
  2. To wish someone good luck, make two fists (with your thumbs tucked inside the fists), and gesture as if you are slightly pounding on a table.
  3. To specify number “one”, use your upright thumb.
Belgium
  1. To point with your index finger is considered impolite.
  2. When you are talking to someone, do not keep your hand or hands in your pockets. This is considered rude.
  3. To slap someone on the back or to be noisy are both very rude gestures in Belgium.
  4. To yawn, blow your nose, sneeze or scratch yourself in the presence of others is considered poor manners.
Germany
  1. It is impolite to shake someone`s hand with your other hand in your pocket. Parents often scold children for putting their hands in their pockets because it is a sign of disrespect.
  2. If you are talking with someone, do not chew gum. This is considered very rude. To do so would remind a German person of “a cow chewing its cud”.
  3. In various parts of Germany, if you arrive at a dinner table, and you are unable to shake everyone`s hand due to the arrangement of the seating, a guest will rap his knuckles lightly on the table to signal his greeting to everyone. The same may happen when a person leaves the table. Also, university students utilize this gesture to greet their professors in a classroom.
England (United Kingdom)
  1. Loud talking and other forms of noisy behavior should always be avoided.
  2. Try not to stare at anyone in public. Privacy is highly valued in the United Kingdom.
  3. You wait in line in the United States, and you “queue up” in the United Kingdom. You should never “jump the queue” (проходить без очереди).
  4. When drinking in a pub, pick up your change after you pay for your drink. If you leave it there, you are implying that you are leaving a tip. Tipping is not widespread in British pubs.
  5. Don`t stand too close to people you are talking to. “Keep your distance”.
  6. An offensive gesture in England would be the “V for victory” sign made with your palm facing yourself.
Turkey
  1. It is extremely offensive to show the sole of your shoe to someone, or use your shoe to point at someone or something. This is due to the fact that shoe soles are the lowest part of the body and are usually dirty.
  2. You should neither smoke nor eat while on a street.
  3. The unique Turkish gesture to signal that something good is done is to hold your hand up, palm outward, and slowly bring the fingers into the thumb, in a grasping motion.
Some Tips for Travelers
  1. In Japan you should avoid eye contact.
  2. In Spain, women should be careful about making eye contact with strangers, as it might signal interest of a romantic nature.
  3. In France, you shouldn`t sit down in a cafe until you`ve shaken hands with everyone you know.
  4. In Afghanistan, you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.
  5. In the Middle East, you should not admire anything in your hosts` home. They will feel that they have to give it to you as a gift.
  6. In Pakistan, you mustn`t wink. It is offensive.
  7. In Korea, you mustn`t blow your nose in public.
  8. In Finland, you shouldn`t begin to eat before your host does.
It is not a good idea to... [1]
Put your hands on your lap during dining in Austria.
  1. Begin to eat before your host does in _______.
  2. Sit down in a cafe until you`ve shaken hands with everyone you know in _______.
  3. Blow your nose in public in _______.
  4. Make eye contact in _______.
  5. Jump the queue in _______.
  6. use your shoe to point at someone or something in _______.
  7. leave your change after you pay for drink your in _________.
  8. Yawn in the presence of others in _______.
  9. Say “Hi! See you later” when you are introduced to someone in _______.
  10. Stand close to people you are talking to in _______.
II. LISTENING
1. Choose the correct answer after you listen to five people talking about cultures around the world.
1. You will hear a man talking about the French.
French people may be considered rude if they
A. keep interrupting their interlocutor.
B. have loud conversations.
C. fail to shake hands upon arrivals.
The French like conversing. When you are speaking to French people, do not be surprised if they keep interrupting you and even raise their voices; it is quite normal. French people shake hands much more than Americans or most Europeans. If you fail to shake hands, you may be considered rude. You shouldn`t sit down in a cafe until you`ve shaken hands with everyone you know. A woman in France will offer her hand first.
2. You will hear a woman talking about contemporary m American families.
Which of the following is NOT true according to the speaker?

Americans
A. bring up their children to be independent.
B. make their children work part-time.
C. teach children to take care of themselves.
...I like how Americans raise their children. They raise them to be independent. It is a part of American culture. Small children learn to do things on their own. They learn to take care of themselves, clean their rooms, help with the dishes and the laundry, spend time away from their parents in day-care or with a baby sitter. Most teenagers try to find summer or after-school jobs, so that they can have their own money. Students usually work part-time. They may also work during summer vacation.
3. You will hear a woman talking about English people. Which of the following is true?
A. An average Englishman is rather reserved but friendly.
B. An average Englishman is rather reserved and doesn`t try to be friendly.
C. Though an average Englishman is rather reserved he tries to be friendly too soon.
Yes, I`ve been in England quite a long time now. What differences do I notice between Russia and England? Of course, the biggest difference is people. An average Englishman is rather reserved. He is friendly. But he doesn`t try to be too friendly too soon. The land and the climate in Britain don`t have extremes. Neither do people.
4. You will hear a man talking about punctuality. What time should you expect your Italian guests to arrive at your birthday party?
A. On time.
B. An hour early.
C. An hour late.
Of course, punctuality is a necessary habit in the life of civilized society. Without it, nothing could ever be brought to a conclusion. But how do different nationalities understand it? Imagine you have arranged a birthday party. What time should you expect your foreign guests to arrive? If they are German, they`ll be right on time. If they are British, they`ll be 10 or 15 minutes late. This enables the hosts to finish their preparations. Italians may be late to the party about an hour.
5. You will hear a woman talking about Russian superstitions.
Does she find the superstition to sit down quietly for a few moments together before leaving on a journey to be
A. important?
B. reasonable?
C. funny?
Russians have many superstitions which are often taken seriously. But some are funny. For example: meeting a woman with empty buckets is bad luck; a feeling of your ears or face burning means that someone is talking about you. Before leaving on a journey they sit down quietly for a few moments together. But this superstition, in my opinion, is very reasonable. It helps to concentrate everyone`s thoughts and attention, and not to leave anything important at home, tickets, for example.
6. Listen again. Answer questions 1-5 by writing Y (Yes) or N (No).
  1. Do the French like conversations?
  2. Does the speaker like how Americans raise their children? _________
  3. Is the climate the greatest difference between Russia and England? ________
  4. Do Russian people always take their superstitions seriously? _________
  5. Should you expect a German to be on time if you have arranged a meeting? ___
III. SPEAKING
Give a talk on the topic: “Why Is English Such an Important Language? ”
Sample Answer
English is the most used language when we make contact with other nationalities. When a Japanese person meets someone from Italy he/she will probably speak English, not Japanese or Italian. English is the international language of communication and is spoken by about 800 million people all over the world. It is also the language of science, business and advertising. Many English words are in common use: Internet, website, marketing, management...
Young people all over the world have accepted a universal popular culture in which their own rhythms combine with American songs, words and images. Sometimes it`s easiest to get some necessary information from a source in English. The Internet can be more helpful for people who know English: there is a lot of useful information in English. But the most important fact is that knowledge of English will enhance your chance to get a well-paid job.
Gestures
The English don’t usually use hand gestures in communication. English hands are usually kept firmly to English sides in all conversation. But they should be in sight at all times. It is considered very bad manners to talk to anyone with the hands in the pockets, as if preparing an instrument of aggression. The English man or woman will usually only use hand gestures when they are absolutely necessary such as for pointing the way (index finger of the right hand extended).
What You Should Do and What You Should Not Do in Great Britain
Should Do

Always tell the truth to the British partner: if not, he or she will feel it. Control your feelings, when you are talking to an English man. Never show your emotions. Scottish and Welsh are not so much resolved. If you want an Englishman to like you, speak about his garden — the English love gardening! The least dangerous topi...

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